|Otis Elevator Company|
1854 (Yonkers, New York, United States
Farmington, Connecticut, United States
Otis Elevator Company is the world's largest manufacturer of vertical transportation system. The company was founded in Yonkers, New York, USA by Elisha Otis, who accidentally invented the safety mechanism of the elevator should the hoisting rope break.
HistoryOtis was founded by Elisha Otis in New York, NY, USA, after he demonstrated the special safety elevator mechanism in the Crystal Palace Exhibition in New York City in 1854.
By the end of 1856, Otis had sold more than 40 elevators, all freight models. In 1857, the world's first passenger elevator was installed at E. V. Haughwuot & Company in New York, NY.
After Elisha Otis died of diphtheria in 1861, the company was continued under his two sons Charles and Norton. Soon, the company was renamed to "Otis Brothers Co." with Charles as the company's president.In 1868, Otis developed a steam-powered passenger elevator and in 1870, the company introduce a water-pressured hydraulic elevator.
In 1875, Otis invented the elevator governor.
In the 1880s, Otis has established branch offices in London and Paris, and had installed elevators in the Eiffel Tower, London Underground, Glasgow Harbour Tunnel, etc.
In 1889, Otis installed the first 2 elevators of the first sucessful electric elevator model at the Demarest Building in New York, NY.
Otis invented the automatic elevator in 1892.
In 1895, Otis installed the first elevators with the Unit Multi-Voltage (formerly called Ward Leonard) principal, for smoother ride quality.
Otis developed the escalator technology in 1895 and was introduced it in the Paris Exposition in 1900, a step type escalator. After that, the same escalator was installed in a department store in Pittsburgh, PA (Possibly Kaufmann's).
In 1898, Otis greatly contributed to the high speed water hydraulic elevator.
Otis also made another type of escalator, called the cleat type escalator. This type was probably not popular, and was made for only maybe 20 years.
Otis invented the gearless traction elevator in 1902. The first commercial installation was at the Majestic Theater in Chicago, IL.
Otis invented the geared traction elevator in 1908. The cable wrapped around the motor multiple times.
Otis invented the modern style geared traction elevator in 1911. Now, the cable only goes over the motor. This technology is still used today.
In 1915, Otis invented the self-leveling elevator, which they called the Micro-Drive.
In 1924, Otis introduced a high speed semi-automatic elevator, called Signal-Control.
Around this time, Otis introduced Collective-Control, which mostly eliminated the need for elevator operators. Elevator operators were still used for fast elevators.
Around 1924, Otis made their first modern style automatic door.
In 1931, a double-deck elevator was introduced by Otis. The first one was installed in the Empire State Building in New York, NY.
Possibly in the 1930s, Otis started using steel steps for escalators.
In 1948, Otis introduced a high speed fully automatic elevator, called Autotronic. Now, elevator operators were completely obsolete.
On July 7, 1976, after a hostile take over, Otis became a wholly owned subsidiary of United Technologies Corp.
Otis purchased UK's oldest elevator company Express Lift Co. Ltd. of Northampton as well as Evans Lifts of Leichester in 1997. Later, both companies merged together to form "Express Evans".
Otis introduces it's destination dispatch system called "Otis Compass" which is similar to Schindler Miconic 10 elevators.
In 2013, Otis launched a new residential Gen2 elevator that eliminates the need for three phase power, is solar-power capable, and uses battery technology to continue to run when the power goes out.
Otis has its headquarters in Farmington, Connecticut and has major manufacturing facilities in America, Europe, and Asia. Together they serve more than 200 countries worldwide. The company's elevator test tower, Bristol Test Tower, is located in its headquarter compound. Another test tower is located in Shibayama, Japan, which is one of the tallest elevator testing towers in the world.
Main article: Waygood Otis
- Pre-Industry Years - Becker Equipment & Lifts Limited (United Kingdom)
- 1914 - Waygood & Co. (United Kingdom)
- 1982 - Evans Lifts Limited (United Kingdom)
- 1995 - Boral Elevators (Australia)
- 1997 - Express Lift Co. Ltd. (United Kingdom)
- 1999 - LG (elevator division) (South Korea)
- 2011 - Marshall Elevator (United States)
- 2012 - CemcoLift (United States)
Main article: List of Notable Installations of Otis Elevator
Signal-Control was the world first semi-automatic relay logic controlled elevator system from 1924.
Collective-Control was the world first automatic relay logic controlled elevator system from around 1924. This system had automatic doors, and most likely 5 speeds. This system did not support very high speed applications.
- Main article: Otis Autotronic
The Autotronic (automatic electronic) elevators are automatic programmed elevators introduced in 1948. Unlike the earlier push-button models (Signal Control), these elevators were large, fast, and could change speeds and adjust their schedules to suit traffic demands, bypassing floors when fully loaded.
- Main article: Otis Elevonic 101
The Elevonic 101 was the first completely micro-processor-based elevator control system. It was introduced in 1979.
- Main article: Otis Elevonic 401
The second product of the Elevonic class, the Elevonic 401 was the first "human-engineered" elevator with synthesized speech, information display and security system. It was introduced in 1981.
Remote Elevator Monitoring
Also known as REM, a diagnostic system for checking elevator performance from a distant location. It was introduced in 1986.
Elevonic 411 and 311
Both models were introduced in 1989 and were the most advanced elevator systems in the world. A year later, the modernization series for both models (411M and 311M) were launched.
- Main article: Otis 2000
Skyway was the first AC gearless elevator in the world with large load capacity and Double Deck elevator (1998). This product have another name called "Super Double-Deck Elevator System (Chinese: 超級雙層升降機系統)".
- Main article: Gen2
- Main article: Compass (Otis)
Otis Compass is Otis' destination dispatch system.
- Xizi Otis Elevator Co. Ltd. (Hangzhou, China - established in 1997)
- Sigma Elevator Company (South Korea, merged with LG in 1999, then established in 2001)
- Eastern Elevators (Australia)
Accidents and incident
- On 13 May 2003, an upward escalator at City Hall MRT station, Singapore suddenly reversed, flinging some 20 people on it backwards, including a woman who was pregnant.
- On July 24, 2009, a group of 8 people were trapped for 8 hours in an Otis elevator in Toronto. A repair man who tried to fix the elevator fell more then 20 floors to his death.
- On December 14, 2010, an Otis escalator installed in the International Trade station of Shenzhen Metro Line 1 retrograded without notice, causing 25 passenger injures.
- On July 5, 2011, an Otis 513MPE escalator installed at Beijing Subway Line 4 Zoo Station escalator changed direction without notice, causing 30 people to fall. One boy was killed and 27 people injured, prompting China to halt the use of the escalator model.
- In February 2007, the European Union regulators fined Otis Elevator 225 million Euros for being part of a price-fixing cartel. Other manufacturers such as ThyssenKrupp, Schindler, Kone and Mitsubishi Elevator Europe were also fined similar amounts in the same cartel.
- In Japan, Otis elevators are often called Nippon OTIS and often branded as National OTIS.
- Otis has also dabbled in horizontal automated people-mover "shuttle" systems, such as the Otis Hovair.
- One of the notable Otis Hovair installations is in Narita International Airport, Japan. They were installed by Nippon Otis Elevator Company in 1992 and it is still in operation.
- Most Otis elevators in Korea are using Sigma-based elevator fixtures.
- Otis Elevator Fixtures Guide (American)
- Otis Elevator Fixtures Guide (South Korea)
- Otis Elevator Fixtures Guide (worldwide)
Landing sills nameplates
- ↑ The Secret Life of the Lift (Secret Life Of Machines Series 3 (1993) by Tim Hunkin) - YouTube
- ↑ Otis launched new residential solar-powered Gen2 elevator
- ↑ Becker Lift Company in Beno Lift Guide
- ↑ Was a distributor for Sigma elevators in the United States.
- Official website
- Sigma Elevator Company official website
- Hangzhou Xizi Otis Elevator official website
- List of patent
- Complete history of Otis Elevator Company
- The complete Otis Elevator Voice Announce Vocabulary (.wav format). - Source: SkyscraperSim Forum.
- More history on The Elevator Museum site