A freight elevator, (or service elevator, cargo elevator, or goods lift in the United Kingdom) is an elevator designed to carry goods, rather than passengers.
Freight elevators are generally required to display a written notice in the car that the use by passengers is prohibited (though not necessarily illegal), though certain freight elevators allow dual use through the use of an inconspicuous riser.
Freight elevators are typically larger and capable of carrying heavier loads than a passenger elevator, generally from 2,300 to 4,500 kg capacity. Freight elevators may have manually operated doors, and often have rugged interior finishes cab (which called enclosure) to prevent damage while loading and unloading. Although hydraulic freight elevators exist, traction elevators are more energy efficient for the work of freight lifting. These elevators are specially constructed to withstand the rigors of heavy loads.
Classes of Freight Elevator
Class A: General Freight Loading
Freight elevator with this class has the load distributed, the weight of any single piece is not more than 1/4 the capacity of the elevator and the load is handled on and off the car platform manually or by means of hand trucks.
Class B: Motor Vehicle Loading
Freight elevator with this class is used solely to carry automobile trucks or passenger automobiles up to the rated capacity of the elevator.
Class C1: Industrial Truck Loading
A four-wheeled vehicle may be used to load and unload in the elevator with this class. The combined weight of the vehicle and the load cannot exceed the rated capacity and may be rolled onto the platform as a single unit.
Class C2: Industrial Truck Loading
In this class, during loading and unloading, the maximum load on the platform may be up to 150% of the rated capacity. This enables the user to use a forklift to load a car with freight weighing up to the rated capacity.
Class C3: Other forms of Industrial Truck Loading
During the loading and unloading process, the rated capacity must never be exceeded.
Door configuration in some smaller freight elevators are normally center-opening or two sliding telescopic doors, Larger freight elevators normally have three or four sliding telescopic doors.
Very large or heavy-duty freight elevators with very large capacity (up to 7000 kg) may have six-sliding telescopic doors.
Older freight elevators in the United States and Hong Kong normally have two vertical sliding doors, either manual or automatic.
Main article: Dumbwaiter
A vehicle elevator (or car lift) is used within buildings or areas with limited space (in lieu of ramps), typically to move cars into the parking garage or manufacturer's storage. Vehicle elevators are mostly hydraulic drive and have a weight capacity of 2 tons.
Geared hydraulic chains (not unlike bicycle chains) generate lift for the platform and there are no counterweights. To accommodate building designs and improve accessibility, the platform may rotate so that the driver only has to drive forward.