Destination dispatch is an optimization technique used for multi-elevator installations, which groups passengers for the same destinations into the same elevators, thereby reducing waiting and travel times when compared to a traditional system where all passenger wishing to ascend or descend enter the same elevator and then request their destination.
Without traditional hall call buttons outside the elevators, passengers request travel to a particular floor using a keypad, touch screen or proximity card room-key prior in the lobby and are immediately directed to an appropriate elevator car.
In systems applying destination dispatch, passengers register their destination at an input device at the elevator landing. When the allocated car arrives, it knows where the passenger is going, and thus there is no need for the passenger to register a car call. Proponents of destination dispatch often make dramatic claims about the system's performance. In this way, travel time is reduced as the elevator makes fewer stops for individual passengers, and the computer distributes adjacent stops to different cars in the bank. Although travel time is reduced passenger waiting times may be longer as they will not necessarily be allocated the next car to depart. During the down peak period, the benefit of destination control will be limited as passengers have a common destination.
Inside the elevator there are no floor buttons to push, the buttons are in the locked panel, or the buttons are there but they cannot be pushed except door open, door close and alarm buttons (door open and alarm buttons are mandatory installed in the elevators). They only indicate stopping floors. However, the buttons can be pushed if the destination dispatch control panel is only in some specified floors instead of all floors, like destination dispatch elevators with Hybrid Configuration.
Destination dispatch elevator are divided into two configuration systems:
In hybrid configuration system, the destination hall panels are installed only on the busiest floors (mainly the ground or lobby floor) or certain floors, while the other floors have conventional up and down call buttons. Floor buttons exist and are operational inside the car. This is particulary beneficial to improve traffic flow leaving from the busiest floors. Also, it is especially useful in buildings with heavy up peak traffic. Handicap mode is usually not supported in this configuration (except on the main floor when using the keypad). Some elevator brands that use this configuration are Mitsubishi (DOAS) (discontinued), Otis (Compass), and Kone (Polaris). One example of this system is in the PricewaterhouseCooper Place, in Vancouver B.C., Canada, in which a ThyssenKrupp Destination Dispatch System is only installed on the Lobby floor, and all the intermediate floors have Dewhurst up/down call stations and conventional COP inside the elevator.
In the full configuration system, destination hall panels are installed on all floors. Elevator cars receive destination information from all floors to provide the best service as more complex traffic patterns emerge throughout the day. In addition, there are no floor buttons within the cars - only door open and close, and emergency buttons (alarm button, intercom button, or both). Handicap mode is fully supported in this configuration, to offer an elevator which have floor announcement and extend the door opening time. Most elevator manufacturers feature this type of configuration.
The idea of destination control was originally conceived by Leo Port from Sydney in 1961, but at that time elevator controllers were implemented in mechanical relays and were unable to optimise the performance of destination control allocations.
Mitsubishi Electric introduced its own system in 2002, called the Destination Oriented Prediction System (or further Destination Oriented Allocation System, DOAS-S). This system is powered using ΣAI-2200 artificially intelligent control.
Benefit, detriments, limitation and solution
- Improve accessibility, as a mobility-impaired passenger can move to his or her designated car in advance.
- Reduce waiting and time travel, as the elevator cars skips unnecessary floor stops.
- Improve elevator efficiency and performance.
- It can organize elevator lobbies with orderly traffic flow.
One detriment of destination dispatch elevator is that some people who are not used to destination dispatch elevators may not understand how to use it, even though building managements have put instruction signs how to operate the system in elevator lobbies. Few buildings even have downgraded their destination dispatch elevators to conventional ones with push buttons inside because of too many people complaining that the system was confusing for them or they didn't understand on how to operate it.
One limitation of destination dispatch elevator is that the performance enhancements cannot be generalized as the benefits and limitations of the system are dependent on many factors. One problem is that the system is subject to gaming. Sometimes, one person enters the destination for a large group of people going to the same floor. The dispatching algorithm is usually unable to completely cater for the variation, and latecomers may find the elevator they are assigned to is already full. Also, occasionally, one person may press the floor multiple times. This is common with up/down buttons when people believe this to be an effective way to hurry elevators. However, this will make the computer think multiple people are waiting and will allocate an empty car to serve this one person.
To prevent this problem, in one implementation of destination control, every user gets an RFID card to identify themselves (like Schindler ID and later Schindler PORT) so the system knows every user call and can cancel the first call if the passenger decides to travel to another destination to prevent empty calls. The newest invention knows even where people are located and how many on which floor because of their identification, either for the purposes of evacuating the building or for security reasons.
There have been many destination control system elevators produced by various elevator manufacturers, they are:
- Compass (Otis)
- Destination Based Dispatching (MCE)
- Destination Control System (LiSA)
- Destination Control System (Toshiba)
- Destination Dispatching System (also known as e*route) (Sigma)
- Destination Dispatching System (STEP)
- Destination Floor Reservation System (Hitachi)
- Destination Oriented Allocation System (Mitsubishi)
- Destination Reservation Guidance System (Fujitec)
- Destination Selection Control (thyssenkrupp)
- Destination Selecting System (Hyundai)
- Ethos Navigator (Thames Valley Controls)
- LiftXPress (KollMorgen)
- Miconic 10/Schindler ID (Schindler)
- Polaris (Kone)
- PORT (Schindler)
Fujitec Destination Reservation Guidance System
- New York Times Building, New York, NY, United States
- 510 Madison, New York, NY, United States
- Park Place, Seattle, WA, United States
- ANZ House, Adelaide
- Reserve Bank Building, Adelaide
- City Central Tower 8, Adelaide
- Piper Alderman Tower, Adelaide
- Collins Square, Melbourne
- Lippo Kuningan, Jakarta (2013)
- MNC Finance Center, Jakarta (2014)
- Menara Sentraya, Jakarta (2013)
- GKM Green Tower, Jakarta
- Wisma Mulia 1, Jakarta (modernization project)
- Metropolitan Tower, Jakarta (2014)
- Noble House, Jakarta
- Twitter Headquarter, San Fransisco, CA
- DaVita Building, Denver, CO
- Aloft Boston Seaport, Boston, MA
- 2445 Technology Forest Boulevard, Woodlands, TX
- Kansas City Marriott Downtown, Kansas City, MO (modernized from Montgomery elevators)
- Kungsbron 2, Stockholm, Sweden
- Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands (2012)
- The Ritz-Carlton Hotel, Herzeliya, Israel (2011)
- Athenee Tower, Bangkok, Thailand (2008)
- Gaysorn Tower, Bangkok, Thailand (2017)
- Capital City Multifunctional Complex, Moscow, Russia
- Imperia Tower, Moscow, Russia
- Naberezhnaya Tower, Moscow, Russia
- Sama Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
- ThePlaza Office Tower, Jakarta (2009)
- UOB Tower (Thamrin Nine), Jakarta (2007)
- TCC Batavia Tower 1, Jakarta
- Multivision Tower, Jakarta
- Talavera Suite, Jakarta
- The Tower, Jakarta (2016)
- Twin City, Seoul, South Korea
- Jongro Place, Seoul, South Korea
- Yeonsei Building, Seoul, South Korea
- BB Building, Bangkok
- Bangkok Bank Head Office Silom, Bangkok
- Glouchester House, Hong Kong, China (2010, modernized from 1980 Mitsubishi elevators)
- Ocean Finance Centre, Singapore (2011)
- One Raffles Quay, Singapore
- Tokyo Building, Tokyo, Japan
- 680 Folsom Street, San Francisco, CA, United States
- 200 Spectrum Tower Office Building, Irvine, CA, United States
- Westin St. Francis, San Fransisco, CA
- The Swissotel Chicago, IL
- LondonHouse Chicago, Chicago, IL
- JPMorgan Chase Centre, Houston, TX
- Union Trust Building, Pittsburgh, PA
- Oliver Building, Pittsburgh, PA
- Thaniya Plaza, Bangkok (2016)
- Panjathani Tower, Bangkok
- Tipco Tower, Bangkok
- Silom Complex Office Tower, Bangkok (2017)
- Royal Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
- Hilton Hotel London, United Kingdom 
- Ciputra World Jakarta 2, Jakarta, Indonesia (under construction)
- Millenium Centennial Tower, Jakarta, Indonesia (under construction)
- Bitexco Financial Tower, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (2010)
- Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (2010)
- Neve Noff Tower, Bat Yam, Israel (2013)
Schindler Miconic 10
- AIA Tower (1999)
- Langham Place Office Tower (2004)
- Three Pacific Place
- Buildings in The Landmark, Central:
- York House (2006)
- Edinburgh Tower (2012, modernization)
- Buildings in Taikoo Place:
- Lincoln House (1998)
- Cambridge House (2003)
- One Island East (2008)
- Graha Aktiva, Jakarta (1992)
- Menara Mulia, Jakarta (1992)
- Pondok Indah Office Tower 1, Jakarta (1996)
- Wisma GKBI, Jakarta (1995)
- Graha Surveyor, Jakarta
- Menara BCA, Jakarta (2007)
- The Energy Office Tower, Jakarta (2006)
- APL Tower, Jakarta (2009)
- AXA Tower, Jakarta (2010)
- 88@Kasablanka Office Tower, Jakarta (2012)
- CentralPlaza Grand Rama 9, Bangkok (Office Tower, 2011)
- CentralPlaza Chaengwattana, Nonthaburi (Office Tower, 2008)
- C.P. Tower 3, Bangkok
- The Offices at CentralWorld, Bangkok (2004)
- CyberWorld Tower, Bangkok (2008)
- Software Park, Nonthaburi
- Energy Complex, Bangkok (2009)
- Sathorn Square, Bangkok (2011)
- Italthai Tower, Bangkok (1997)
- Intouch Tower, Bangkok (2005)
- M Society Condominium, Nonthaburi
- Marriott Marquis Hotel Times Square, NY
- Bank of America Plaza Ft. Lauderdale, FL
- JW Marriott Hotel, Washington D.C.
- Aston Waikiki Beach Hotel, Honolulu, HI
- The Park Tower Knightsbridge (Sheraton Park Tower Hotel), London, United Kingdom
- Barnsley Hospital, Barnsley, United Kingdom (2005)
- URA Building (main building), Singapore
- MetCentre, Sydney, Australia
- Erasme Hospital, Anderlecht, Brussels, Belgium
- Ichilov Hospital/Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel (2003)
- Nordstar Tower, Moscow, Russia
- InterContinental Moscow Tverskaya, Moscow, Russia
Schindler PORT Technology
- Capital Bank Plaza, Chartlotte, NC (2011)
- Hilton Palacio Del Rio Hotel, San Antonio, TX
- Westchester Marriott, Tarrytown, NY
- Hilton Ballpark East Tower Hotel, St. Louis, MO
- River North Point, Chicago, IL
- DBS Tower, Jakarta (2013)
- Menara Prima 2, Jakarta (2013)
- Gudang Garam Tower, Jakarta (2013)
- MD Place, Jakarta
- M Gold Tower, Bekasi
- Gran Rubina Business Park, Jakarta
- AMP Building, Adelaide
- 90 Collins Street, Melbourne
- Barangaroo South, Sydney (2013)
- Meriton Building, Brisbane
- Park Ventures Ecoplex, Bangkok (2011)
- SCG 100 Years Building, Bangkok
- AIA Capital Center, Bangkok (2014)
- AIA Sathorn Tower, Bangkok (2015)
- SJ Infinite One Business Complex, Bangkok (2014)
- Lumpini Tower, Bangkok
- Metropolis Office, Bangkok (2015)
- Major Tower, Bangkok (2015)
- KBTG Building, Nonthaburi (2016)
- M Tower, Bangkok (2017)
- Magnolias Ratchadamri Boulevard, Bangkok (under construction)
- International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong, China (2009)
- Royal Liver Building, Liverpool, GB (2009)
- KölnTurm, Cologne, Germany (2011)
- President Place, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
- Hyatt Hotel, Vancouver B.C., Canada
- Yeongpung Building, Seoul, South Korea
ThyssenKrupp Destination Selection Control (DSC)
In the United States, this system is known as ThyssenKrupp Destination Dispatch.
- One World Trade Center, New York, NY
- One Wells Fargo Center, Charlotte, NC
- Two Wells Fargo Center, Charlotte, NC
- Duke Energy Centre, Charlotte, NC
- Bank of America Tower, Tampa, FL
- Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA
- Royal London Hospital, London
- 3 Princess Way, Redhill 
- Stuttgart University, Stuttgart, Germany
- 56 Pitt Street, Sydney, Australia (2013)
- 101 Miller Street, North Sydney, Australia
- University Tower, Stuttgart, Germany (modernized from Stahl elevators) (1960)
- The Manhattan Square, Jakarta, Indonesia
- Federation Tower West, Moscow, Russia (2008)
Hyundai Destination Selecting System (DSS)
- Busan International Finance Center, Busan
- SSangYong Town, Seoul
- D-Cube Offices, Seoul
- Menara Citicon, Jakarta
- AKR Tower, Jakarta
- Varyap Meridian Grand Tower, Istanbul, Turkey
Hitachi Destination Floor Reservation System (DFRS)
- MBK Tower, Bangkok
- Bhiraj Tower at EmQuartier, Bangkok (2015)
- G Tower, Bangkok (2016)
- Pearl Bangkok, Bangkok (under construction)
- Menara Bangkok Bank, Kuala Lumpur
- Excellent Bonanza, Kuala Lumpur (2013)
- St. Paul Hospital Block B, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong, China (2017)
- Burj Al Salam Tower, Dubai, UAE (2013)
Sigma Destination Dispatching System (DDS)
- NEAT Tower, Incheon, South Korea (Branded as Otis)
- Destination dispatch elevator system can also be implemented on machine room less elevators, normally for low to mid-rise installations.
- In thyssenkrupp TWIN elevator system, destination dispatch is implemented on this elevator system as a standard control feature.
- Currently, Only Hitachi's destination dispatch (Destination Floor Reservation System) meet the Hong Kong's "Design Manual - Barrier Free Access 2008 (BFA 2008)" standard which revised in September, 2015, which additionally explained for the requirement of destination dispatch.
Notes and references
- ↑ DOAS overview
- ↑ "隨着「目的地控制系統」漸趨成熟，目前除迅達知名的「Miconic 10」系統及後繼系列外，其他品牌亦爭相仿效，在本港亦漸趨成熟，亦令普遍乘客不再陌生。", "hkelev.com" facebook page.
- ↑ Replaced from Toshiba elevators.
- ↑ Otis Compass YouTube Video
- ↑ Modernized from Westinghouse elevators.
- ↑ Formerly Schindler Haughton elevators.
- ↑ Modernized from Westinghouse elevators.
- ↑ Modernized from Westinghouse elevators.
- ↑ Also known as Ciputra World Jakarta Office Tower.
- ↑ SCG 100 Years Building
- ↑ Modernized from Fujitec elevators.
- ↑ ThyssenKrupp DSC YouTube Video
- ↑ Modernized from old Otis elevators.
- ↑ Hyundai Destination Dispatch Traction Elevators at Citicon Tower, Jakarta
- ↑ Amazing Super Fast Hyundai Helias Destination Dispatch Traction Elevators at Varyap Meridian
- ↑ Quick View of LEGENDARY Hitachi DFRS Traction Elevators @ MBK Tower, Bangkok
- ↑ BRAND NEW LEGENDARY Hitachi DFRS Elevators @ Bhiraj Tower at EmQuartier, Bangkok (Low Zone)
- ↑ "Design Manual - Barrier Free Access 2008 (BFA 2008)" - Corrigendum (September 2015), Buildings Department, HKSAR, China.
- Understanding the benefits and limitations of destination dispatch elevator
- hkelev - Destination Dispatch system
Concept: Destination dispatch • Elevator algorithm • Elevator control system • Elevator machine room • Elevator maintenance • Elevator major alterations • Elevator modernization • Machine room less elevator
Elevator systems, controllers and equipments: Elevator fixtures • Elevator keys • Elevator special modes • Elevator doors • Door cam • Door interlocks (Interlock wiring communication system) • Door restrictor • Elevator Inspection Certificate • Emergency stop button • Floor designators • Gate switch • Old Deadman controls • Overspeed governor • Motor-generator set & Silicon-controlled rectifier (for DC-powered elevators) • Insulated-gate bipolar transistor (for AC-VVVF-powered elevators) • Regenerative converter (for AC-VVVF-powered elevators)
See also: List of elevator fixtures guide • List of elevator and escalator companies • Elevator door sill guide (Generic elevator component door sill guide) • Floor numbering (Unlucky floor numbers) • Elevator incidents and accidents
|Elevator Destination Dispatch|
Compass (Otis) • DOAS-S (Mitsubishi) • DFRS/FIBEE (Hitachi) • Destination Reservation Guidance System (Fujitec) • Destination Selection Control (thyssenkrupp) • Miconic 10 (Schindler) • Polaris (Kone) • PORT (Schindler) • SchindlerID (Schindler)