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Destination dispatch is an optimization technique used for multi-elevator installations, which groups passengers for the same destinations into the same elevators, thereby reducing waiting and travel times when compared to a traditional system where all passenger wishing to ascend or descend enter the same elevator and then request their destination.

Background

In today's cities where high-rise buildings are dominant, elevators have become an indispensable means of transportation in everyday's life. However, more and more floors and users have made traditional elevator system unable to distribute and bring users to their destination effectively, which brings building transportation efficiency problems to the building, such as long waiting time in the elevator lobby, increased travel time, etc.

Because of this, there have been methods used in most buildings to increase building transportation efficiency, such as implementing a zoned elevator system and even the use of double-deck elevators. As technology became more advanced, it led to the creation of a more intelligent elevator distribution system known as "destination dispatch", which has become a more attractive technology for elevators in recent years, breaking the use of traditional elevator system and distribution methods.

Overview

Traditional/conventional elevator systems have landing call buttons outside the elevators for calling the elevator. After the passenger enters the elevator, he or she will press the button for the desired floor. Since the system cannot predict the floors that all passengers need to go to, there will be passengers going to different floors, regardless of numbers of stops. Therefore, it increases the elevator travel time, and even causes all the elevators to go up and return to the main floor at the same time, directly affecting the waiting time and efficiency of the elevator.

With destination dispatch system, traditional landing call buttons have been eliminated. Instead, passengers enters their destination at an input device at the elevator landing, such as a decimal keypad or touch screen.

Destination dispatch system works by grouping passengers together by the same destination as soon as they enters their destination and assigns them into the same elevator cars. It routes the individual elevator cars in the group so that they serve only certain floors. Therefore, the number of stops are reduced, and because there are few stops made by the elevator, it makes travel time faster than a conventional elevator system as travel time is reduced. The principle of this system is to bring passengers to their destination in the shortest possible time with less crowding and comfort.

The allocation method can be changed according to the situation. For example, going to the upper, lower or adjacent floors will be assigned to the same elevator to avoid inefficiencies such as "stopping at the floor" or "smoothing up".

Some double-deck elevator systems, if combined with this system, can make elevator stops more flexible.

System principle

Elevators equipped with destination dispatch system have at least two numerical keypads or touch screens in each lobby that replaces traditional landing buttons. The keypads have 9-grid numerical buttons which are used to enter the desired destination. If the elevators have touch screens, they usually contains a list of available floors that are served by the elevators. There are also elevator identification plates containing letter for identifying the elevators (e.g. A, B, C, and so on).

Since passengers have already entered their destination outside the elevators, there are no floor buttons inside the elevator cars, leaving only door open, door close and alarm buttons. The floor buttons are hidden behind a locked cabinet and are usually not used in normal conditions. Some elevators may still have floor buttons inside, but they cannot be pressed; they only indicate stopping floors. However, the buttons can be pushed if the destination dispatch control panel is only found in some specified floors instead of all floors, like destination dispatch elevators with Hybrid Configuration.

Operation

In general, the operation of destination dispatch system by different elevator manufacturers is similar. To use the system, the user enters the desired destination on the keypad or touch screens. Once the destination number has been entered, the display on the keypad or touch screen will show the user the elevator assigned by the system, and the user can walk directly to the assigned elevator to wait until it arrives. When entering, the user needs to confirm that his or her destination has been displayed on the destination indicators (if available[1]) or on the floor buttons inside (if, the system works in a Hybrid Configuration). The doors will automatically close and the elevator will go straight to the destination floor. When the elevator arrives and the doors open, the destination number shown on the indicators will disappears.

If the user wants to go to the main or ground floor, he or she simply press "0" (if the main floor is marked as "0" or "G") or the asterisk (*) button on the keypad. If the user wants to go down to an underground floor, he or she must press the minus/negative button (-) followed by the floor number (e.g. Basement Two, press "-" and then "2").

To activate a special function for disabilities (see below), the user first press the handicap button (usually marked by a wheelchair symbol) and then enter the destination number.

Other/special functions

Functions for disabilities

Some systems have a special function for disabled passengers (commonly known as "handicap mode"), which if activated, the system will try to send a particular elevator to serve them. For this, there will be a special button at the bottom of the keypad with a wheelchair symbol which is used to activate the function. The user first press this button before entering the destination number. An automated voice guidance and chimes will be played to guide them to the elevator. When this function is activated, the door open time is extended and door close button is temporarily disabled to facilitate them. Once the elevator stops at the destination floor, the function will automatically turns off and the elevator will return to normal mode.

Handicap mode is not always a standard feature in destination dispatch systems in most cases. Even if the mode is not implemented in the system, one can still see the handicap mode button on keypads, and if one press it, the system will allocate cars as usual but without voice guidance played and extended door open time (door close button will work if one press it).

Functions for emergency or other purposes

Although destination dispatch system is designed to allocate elevators, designated personnels (such as security guards, cleaners, elevator technicians, etc.) can set the elevator into various special modes like inspection mode, attendant service, etc. for certain conditions, similar to a conventional system. In these conditions, the floor buttons which are hidden behind a locked cabinet must be unlocked using a key in order to operate the elevator. For example, when the elevator is in Fire Service Mode, firefighters operates the elevator using those floor buttons.

Integration with security system

Destination dispatch system can also be integrated with the building's security system. For example, when the user passes the security system (such as turnstile, gate card system, etc.) with the pre-registered smart card, the system will also make the floor registration at the same time; the system can restrict the user to only go to the designated floor. Floors, or other floors are set to only the main floor. Schindler PORT is a very good example of this feature.

Some buildings require users to take a smart card for security check when they go to a specific floor. In conjunction with this system, users need to use the keypad or touch screen to select the floor and use the card during the elevator trip. However, the car will not work if it has reached the time limit. In this case, the elevator will not open its doors at this floor and will automatically return to the main floor. An example of this configuration is often found in the Schindler ID system.

System configurations

Destination dispatch elevator are divided into two configuration systems:

Hybrid configuration

In hybrid configuration system, the destination hall panels are installed only on the busiest floors (mainly the ground or lobby floor) or certain floors, while the other floors have conventional up and down call buttons. Floor buttons exist and are operational inside the car. This is particulary beneficial to improve traffic flow leaving from the busiest floors. Also, it is especially useful in buildings with heavy up peak traffic. Handicap mode is usually not supported in this configuration (except on the main floor when using the keypad). Some elevator brands that use this configuration are Mitsubishi (DOAS), Otis (Compass), Kone (Polaris) and Hitachi (DFRS/FIBEE). One example of this system is in the Price Waterhouse Cooper Place, in Vancouver B.C., Canada, in which a ThyssenKrupp Destination Dispatch System is only installed on the Lobby floor, and all the intermediate floors have Dewhurst up/down call stations and conventional COP inside the elevator.

Full configuration

In the full configuration system, destination hall panels are installed on all floors. Elevator cars receive destination information from all floors to provide the best service as more complex traffic patterns emerge throughout the day. In addition, there are no floor buttons within the cars - only door open and close, and emergency buttons (alarm button, intercom button, or both). Handicap mode is fully supported in this configuration, to offer an elevator which have floor announcement and extend the door opening time. Most elevator manufacturers feature this type of configuration.

History

It was said that the idea of a destination dispatch system was first conceived in 1961 by Leo Port from Sydney, Australia. However, as elevator controllers at that time were using mechanical relays and were unable to optimise the performance of destination control allocations, the idea was never materialized.

In 1990, Schindler Group pioneered the world's first practical destination dispatch system as the Miconic 10. The first building to install this system was the Hamburg Electric Company in Germany.

Since the introduction and launching of Schindler's Miconic 10 system, other elevator manufacturers began producing their own version of destination dispatch system. Mitsubishi Electric launched its own system in 2002, called the Destination Oriented Prediction System (or further Destination Oriented Allocation System, DOAS-S). This system is powered using ΣAI-2200 artificially intelligent control.[2]. Meanwhile, Otis and Kone launched their own system in 2005 called Compass (now CompassPlus) and Polaris (now KONE Destination) respectively.

Advantages and disadvantages

Advantages

  • Compared to traditional elevator system, the system can first assign users to different elevators because the system will know in advance the floors that all users are traveling to. For example, if passengers go to the same floor or adjacent, they will be assigned to the same elevator; while others will be assigned to different elevators to save waiting time.
  • Travel time in the elevator is reduced as the elevator only makes few stops, eliminating unnecessary stops compared to a conventional elevator system.
  • The reduced travel time also reduces the number of elevators waiting for elevators on all floors.
  • Since passengers with the same destination are grouped to the same elevators, it makes elevator cars less crowded, thus making journey more comfortable.
  • Building traffic is genuinely managed and handling capacity is radically improved.
  • It can organize elevator lobbies with orderly traffic flow.

Disadvantages

  • Some people who are not used to destination dispatch elevators may not understand how to use it, even though the method of use is simple and building managements have put instruction signs on how to operate the system in elevator lobbies.
    • In fact, there have been a few cases where building managements have downgraded the system back to a conventional elevator system because of too many people complaining about the system for being confusing to them. One example happened in the Mong Kok Government Office building in Hong Kong[3] and CentralPlaza Lardprao office tower in Bangkok. Therefore, this system is mainly used in places with a small number of visitors or higher levels.
  • People who are not familiar with the system or those who are in a hurry may simply enter the elevator when the doors are open. However, since most systems don't have visible floor buttons inside the elevator it is not always possible to get into floors.
  • If the user enters the floor multiple times, the system will often think that multiple people are waiting and will allocate empty cars to serve this one person.

Notable products

There have been many destination control system elevators produced by various elevator manufacturers, they are:

Notable installations

Fujitec Destination Reservation Guidance System

  • New York Times Building, New York, NY, United States
  • 510 Madison, New York, NY, United States
  • Park Place, Seattle, WA, United States

Kone Destination (formerly Kone Polaris)

Main article: List of notable Kone Destination elevator installations

Mitsubishi DOAS-S

Main article: List of notable Mitsubishi DOAS elevator installations

Otis Compass

Main article: List of notable Otis Compass elevator installations

Schindler Miconic 10

Main article: List of notable Schindler Miconic 10 elevator installations

Schindler PORT Technology

Main article: List of notable Schindler PORT elevator installations

ThyssenKrupp Destination Selection Control (DSC)

In the United States, this system is known as ThyssenKrupp Destination Dispatch.

United States

  • One World Trade Center, New York, NY
  • One Wells Fargo Center, Charlotte, NC
  • Two Wells Fargo Center, Charlotte, NC
  • Duke Energy Centre, Charlotte, NC
  • Bank of America Tower, Tampa, FL
  • Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA

United Kingdom

  • Royal London Hospital, London
  • 3 Princess Way, Redhill [4]

Other countries

  • Stuttgart University, Stuttgart, Germany
  • 56 Pitt Street, Sydney, Australia (2013)[5]
  • 101 Miller Street, North Sydney, Australia
  • University Tower, Stuttgart, Germany (modernized from Stahl elevators) (1960)
  • The Manhattan Square, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Federation Tower West, Moscow, Russia (2008)

Hyundai Destination Selecting System (DSS)

South Korea

  • Busan International Finance Center, Busan
  • SSangYong Town, Seoul
  • D-Cube Offices, Seoul

Indonesia

  • Menara Citicon, Jakarta[6]
  • AKR Tower, Jakarta

Other countries

  • Varyap Meridian Grand Tower, Istanbul, Turkey[7]

Hitachi Destination Floor Reservation System (DFRS)

Thailand

  • MBK Tower, Bangkok[8]
  • Bhiraj Tower at EmQuartier, Bangkok (2015)[9]
  • G Tower, Bangkok (2016)
  • Pearl Bangkok, Bangkok (under construction)

Malaysia

  • Menara Bangkok Bank, Kuala Lumpur
  • Excellent Bonanza, Kuala Lumpur (2013)

Other countries

  • St. Paul Hospital Block B, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong, China (2017)
  • Burj Al Salam Tower, Dubai, UAE (2013)

Sigma Destination Dispatching System (DDS)

  • NEAT Tower, Incheon, South Korea (Branded as Otis)

Trivia

  • Destination dispatch elevator system can also be implemented on machine room less elevators, which are normally used for low to mid-rise installations.
  • In thyssenkrupp TWIN elevator system, destination dispatch is implemented on this elevator system as a standard control feature.
  • Currently, Only Hitachi's destination dispatch (Destination Floor Reservation System) meet the Hong Kong's "Design Manual - Barrier Free Access 2008 (BFA 2008)" standard which was revised in September 2015[10], and additionally explained for the requirement of destination dispatch.

Notes and references

External links

Elevator 

Drive systems: Traction • Winding Drum • Hydraulic


Types of elevators: Double DeckDumbwaiterFireman'sFreightIncline • PassengerResidentialWheelchair lift


Concept: CapacityDestination dispatchElevator algorithm • Elevator control systemElevator machine room • Elevator maintenance • Elevator monitoring systemElevator modernizationMachine room less elevatorMajor alterationsRated speed


Elevator systems, controllers and equipments: Elevator fixtures • Elevator keys • Elevator special modesElevator doorsDoor camDoor interlocks (Interlock wiring communication system) • Door restrictorElevator Inspection CertificateEmergency stop buttonFloor designatorsGate switch • Old Deadman controls • Overspeed governorMotor-generator set & Silicon-controlled rectifier (for DC-powered elevators) • Insulated-gate bipolar transistor (for AC-VVVF-powered elevators) • SelectorTape headRegenerative converter (for AC-VVVF-powered elevators)


See also: List of elevator fixtures guide • List of elevator and escalator companies • Elevator door sill guide (Non-proprietary elevator component door sill guide) • Floor numbering (Unlucky floor numbers) • Elevator incidents and accidents

Elevator Destination Dispatch 

Compass (Otis) • DOAS-S (Mitsubishi) • DFRS/FIBEE (Hitachi) • DRGS (Fujitec) • Destination Selection Control (thyssenkrupp) • Miconic 10 (Schindler) • Kone Destination/Polaris (Kone) • PORT (Schindler) • SchindlerID (Schindler)